L2 research | phonetics & phonology | SLM | chapters

Chapters - 2000 or later
Flege, J. and MacKay, I (2011). What accounts for “age” effects on overall degree of foreign accent? In M.
Wrembel, M. Kul and Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, K. (Eds)
Achievements and perspectives in the acquisition of
second language speech: New Sounds 2010
, Vol. 2, Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang, Pp. 65-82.
For older chapters click Earlier chapters                   
Piske, T., Flege, J., MacKay, I., and Meador, D. (2011). Investigating native and non-native vowels
produced in conversational speech. In M. Wrembel, M. Kul and Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, K. (Eds)
Achievements
and perspectives in the acquisition of second language speech: New Sounds 2010, Vol. 2,
Bern,
Switzerland: Peter Lang,  Pp. 195-205.
Mora, J., Keidel, J. and Flege, J. (2011). Why are the Catalan contrasts between /e/-/eh/ and /o/-/oh/ so
difficult for even early Spanish-Catalan bilinguals to perceive? In M. Wrembel, M. Kul and Dziubalska-
Kołaczyk, K. (Eds)
Achievements and perspectives in the acquisition of second language speech: New
Sounds 2010, Vol. 2,
Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang,  Pp. 183-193.
Mora, J.C., Keidel, J.L. & Flege, J.E. (2015) Effects of Spanish use on the production of
Catalan vowels by early Spanish-Catalan bilinguals. In J. Romero & M. Riero (Eds.)
The
Phonetics-Phonology Interface, Representations and methodologies
. Amsterdam: John
Benjamins.
Flege, J. (2008). Give input a chance!  In T. Piske and Young-Scholten, M. (Eds) Input Matters in SLA.  
Bristol: Multilingual Matters, Pp. 175-190.
Flege, J. (2007). Language contact in bilingualism: Phonetic system interactions. In J. Cole and Hualde, J.
(Eds.), Laboratory Phonology 9. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, Pp. 353-380.
McAllister, R., Flege, J. and Piske, T. (2003). Second language comprehension: A discussion of some
influencing factors. In L. Costamagna and S. Giannini (Eds) La Fonologia dell’Interlingua. Milan:
Fancoangeli, Pp. 57-70.
Flege, J. (2003). Assessing constraints on second-language segmental production and perception. In A.
Meyer and N. Schiller (Eds) Phonetics and Phonology in Language Comprehension and Production,
Differences and  Similarities. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Pp. 319-355.  
Trofimovich, P., Baker, W., Flege, J., and Mack, M. (2003). Second language sound learning in children
and adults: Learning sounds, words of both? In Proceedings of the Boston University Conference on
Language Development 27. Sommerville: Cascadilla Press. pp. 775-786.
Flege, J. (2003). Methods for assessing the perception of vowels in a second language. In E. Fava & A.
Mioni (Eds) Issues in Clinical Linguistics. Padova: UniPress, Pp. 19-44.
Flege, J. (2002). Interactions between the Native and Second-language Phonetic Systems. In P.
Burmeister, T. Piske and A. Rohde (Eds) An Integrated View of Language Development: Papers in Honor
of Henning Wode. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, Pp. 217-244.
Flege, J. (2018). A non-critical period for L2 learning. In Mette Nyvad, M. HejnáHoyen,
A. Jespersen, & M. Sorensen (Eds.) A sound approach to language matters. In Honor
of Ocke-Schwen Bohn. Aarhus University, Denmark: School of Communication and
Culture. [Open Access e-book at Aarhus University Library].

Abstract. Early learners usually enjoy greater success in second-language (L2)
learning than Late learners do. This is often interpreted to mean that the capacity for
L2 learning diminishes after the close of a critical period. However the seeming limits on
Late learners’ success in learning an L2 following immigration, even after years of
regular L2 use in the host country, may not be the unwanted consequence of normal
neurocognitive maturation. It may instead arise from differences in the quantity and
quality of input that Early and Late learners typically receive. This hypothesis was
supported by the research reviewed in this chapter for both L2 speech learning and
some aspects of L2 morphosyntax learning, leading to the proposal that long-term
success in L2 learning is determined probabilistically by a non-critical period defined by
age-related variation in L2 input.